Many discoveries in physics, chemistry and medicine have been made using X-rays. The most important ones awarded with the Nobel Prize are the following.
W. C. Röntgen, in physics, for the discovery of X-rays.
M. von Laue, in physics, for the discovery of X-rays by crystals.
W. H. Bragg and W. L. Bragg, in physics, for the determination of crystal structures using X-rays.
C. G. Barkla, in physics, for the discovery of the characteristic X-ray radiation of the elements.
M. Siegbahn, in physics, for discoveries in the field of X-ray spectroscopy.
A. H. Compton, in physics, for revealing the particle nature of X-rays in scattering experiments on electrons.
P. Debye, in chemistry, for determining molecular structures by X-ray diffraction in gases.
M. F. Perutz and J. C. Kendrew, in chemistry, for determining the structure of hemoglobin and myoglobin.
F. Crick, J. Watson and M. Wilkins, in medicine, for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material.
D. Crowfoot Hodgkin, in chemistry, for the determination of the structure of penicillin and other important biochemical substances.
W. N. Lipscomb, in chemistry, for the determination of boranes.
A. M. Cormack and G. N. Hounsfield, in medicine, for the development of computerized tomography.
M. Siegbahn, in physics, for developing high resolution electron spectroscopy.
H. A. Hauptman and J. Karle, in chemistry, for the development of direct methods for X-ray crystallographic structure determination.
J. Deisenhofer, R. Huber and H. Michel, in chemistry, for the determination of protein structures crucial to photosynthesis.